It has various lists of products upon which it enforces this control chemical precursors, dual-use chemical equipment, pathogenic agents for plants and animals and dual-use biological equipment. Australia Group. Missile Technology Control Regime MTCR : This is a forum aimed at the control of the exportation of technology associated with the manufacturing of missiles.
The aim of the MTCR is to prevent the proliferation of long range and heavy loaded missiles that act as weapons of mass destruction vectors. In addition to the missiles, associated technology and subsystems are also controlled.
The point of contact is Paris. Wassenaar Arrangement : This seeks to establish controls on the export of conventional weapons, as well as military and relevant dual-use products and technology. The Wassenaar Arrangement Secretariat is located in Vienna. Wassenaar Arrangement. Over time it has been acknowledged internationally as an efficient system, in which the partners of other international export control regimes of which Spain is a part of can trust. Foreign Trade. This is a global effort to prevent the illegal trafficking of weapons of mass destruction, their launch vectors and related material to and from States and non-State actors, placing emphasis on the interception of illegal traffic as a mechanism against proliferation.
The PSI was launched in on the foundations of eleven interception principles.
When a country adheres to these principles, it undertakes to coordinate and exchange information with other partners and to develop legal mechanisms on a national level. Some twenty countries make up the central nucleus that founded the PSI, including Spain. Since then, the principles have been taken on by other countries, making a total of 90 countries. This is an initiative that was launched jointly in by the presidents of the United States and the Russian Federation.
It aims to develop international cooperation in the framework of preventing nuclear terrorism. From until , Spain held the role of technical coordinator for the Implementation and Assessment Group. Spain also participates in all international efforts regarding conventional disarmament, and is a State Party to the fundamental treaties.
This Convention, and its annexed protocols, aims to protect the civil population and its combatants, for humanitarian principles, against the particularly harmful effects of certain weapons.
Enforcing Compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Just as the name of the convention highlights, to reach this humanitarian aim, specific bans or restrictions are imposed on the use of certain conventional weapons. The amended Protocol II came into force on 3 December More information. Each State Party undertakes to never, and under no circumstances, directly or indirectly employ, develop, produce, acquire by one way or another, store, conserve or transfer anti-personnel mines.
Furthermore, Spain has been undertaking a committed role with international and regional initiatives with regards the clearance of the remnants of war, demining and attending to victims. The Convention on Cluster Munitions completely bans the manufacturing, transferring, use and storage of cluster munition. It entered into force on 1 August Spain ratified the Convention in , and it was the first country to complete the destruction of its military arsenals of cluster bombs. It entered into force on 9 November This treaty was the legal framework for the progressive reduction of the levels of conventional weaponry in Europe.
More than 60, units of conventional weaponry limited by said treaty were destroyed, and more than 4, land inspections have been carried out. The CFE established a system to control conventional weaponry in Europe based on numeric limitations, taking into account diverse geographic areas. This allowed for the consolidation of a balanced, stable situation thanks to a verification and information exchange system between the States Parties.
It came into force in , establishing a programme of aerial surveillance flights over its State Party. These are carried out by means of aircraft equipped with sensors, cameras, horizontal bar radars and infra-red cameras. It is politically binding. Its content includes measures regarding reducing risks through consultation and cooperation mechanisms by means of non-regular military activities, exchanging information and observational visits to military facilities and activities being undertaken. It establishes notification mechanisms for the military activities and manoeuvres of a certain entity; restrictions and notifications of annual calendars regarding activities; and compliance and verification mechanisms.
In the Annual Implementation Assessment Meeting, there is a review of the degree of compliance of the States Parties, of which there are currently 53, including Spain. Within the framework of the European Union, and thanks to the intense coordination work between the Member States in the field of non-proliferation and Disarmament, two strategies have been developed. The first of these is the EU's strategy against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Strategy 1. The second is the EU's strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of small arms and ammunition, adopted by the European Council in Strategy 2.
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Summary With the mechanisms created from the midth century until now, the proliferation process has been able to be delayed. Spain, through active participation in different multi-lateral forums, has led the search for balanced formulas between security, trust and technical progress. Spanish foreign policy will remain in force against the new threats to international peace and security, and it will continue to demonstrate its full capacity to take on the responsibilities that fall upon Spain in the realm of non-proliferation and disarmament.
Minister's speech at the Conference on Disarmament.
Ongi etorri. The Ministry. For many years, too much attention had been paid to obtaining signatures on treaties, and not enough to achieving compliance with them. The absence of a collective political will to stop bad actors—by force if necessary—undermined deterrence. The United States itself had routinely made proliferation concerns secondary to other strategic and economic issues in relations with key states such as Pakistan, Israel, and Iraq.
However, the current Bush strategy—like the one it replaced—has proven insufficient. Nuclear weapons and fissile materials are problems wherever they are, not just in a handful of "evil" states.
Enforcing Compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
The threat cannot be eliminated by removing whichever foreign governments the United States finds most threatening at any given time. The United States cannot defeat the nuclear threat alone, or even with small coalitions of the willing. It needs sustained cooperation from dozens of diverse nations—including the leading states that have forsworn nuclear weapons, such as Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa, and Sweden—in order to broaden, toughen, and stringently enforce nonproliferation rules.
To get that cooperation, the nuclear weapon states must show that tougher nonproliferation rules not only benefit the powerful but constrain them as well. As Francis Fukuyama notes, "Other people will follow the American lead if they believe it is legitimate; if they do not, they will resist, complain, obstruct, or actively oppose what we do. With societies bristling at U. Even when others share U. Global nuclear security requires universal compliance with the norms and rules of a toughened nuclear nonproliferation regime.
Compliance means more than signatures on treaties, or declarations of good intent — it means actual performance. Universal means that nonproliferation norms and rules must be extended not only to states that have joined the treaties, but to all states, and to non-state actors as well. Six obligations form the core of the universal compliance strategy. We must revise the rules managing the production of nuclear weapon-usable materials, and clarify and tighten the terms by which states can withdraw from the NPT.
All states must diminish the role of nuclear weapons in security policies and international politics. The nuclear weapon states must do more to make their nonproliferation commitments irreversible, especially through the steady verified dismantlement of nuclear arsenals. All states must maintain robust standards for securing, monitoring, and accounting for all fissile materials in any form. States must establish enforceable prohibitions against efforts by individuals, corporations, and states to assist others in secretly acquiring the technology, mate-rial, and know-how needed to develop nuclear weapons.
India, Israel, and Pakistan should be persuaded to accept the same nonproliferation obligations accepted by the weapon state signatories to the NPT. The three states should not be rewarded with trade in nuclear power reactors, but should receive cooperation to strengthen nuclear material security and reactor safety.
The new proliferation challenges make it clear beyond denial that the present nonproliferation regime needs fixing.
The Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty at fifty: a midlife crisis
This is a time that demands systemic change: a new strategy to defeat old and new threats before they become catastrophes. Only by forging this balance of obligations involving all states and all actors can we erect a defense in depth to the dangers from the spread of nuclear weapons. The World Unpacked is a weekly foreign policy podcast, hosted by Jen Psaki, that breaks down the hottest global issues of today with experts, journalists, and policymakers who can explain what is happening, why it matters, and where we go from here.
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