Other philosophical uses of imagined scenarios arguably are thought experiments also. In one use of scenarios, philosophers might imagine persons in a particular situation maybe ourselves , and ask what they would do. For example, in the veil of ignorance , John Rawls asks us to imagine a group of persons in a situation where they know nothing about themselves, and are charged with devising a social or political organization.
The use of the state of nature to imagine the origins of government, as by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke , may also be considered a thought experiment. An early written thought experiment was Plato 's allegory of the cave. He asked his readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air isolated from all sensations in order to demonstrate human self-awareness and self-consciousness , and the substantiality of the soul.
In many thought experiments, the scenario would be nomologically possible , or possible according to the laws of nature. John Searle's Chinese room is nomologically possible. Some thought experiments present scenarios that are not nomologically possible. In his Twin Earth thought experiment , Hilary Putnam asks us to imagine a scenario in which there is a substance with all of the observable properties of water e.
It has been argued that this thought experiment is not nomologically possible, although it may be possible in some other sense, such as metaphysical possibility.
It is debatable whether the nomological impossibility of a thought experiment renders intuitions about it moot. In some cases, the hypothetical scenario might be considered metaphysically impossible, or impossible in any sense at all. David Chalmers says that we can imagine that there are zombies , or persons who are physically identical to us in every way but who lack consciousness. This is supposed to show that physicalism is false.
Others have claimed that the conceivability of a scenario may not entail its possibility. The philosophical work of Stefano Gualeni focuses on the use of virtual worlds to materialize thought experiments and to playfully negotiate philosophical ideas. Gualeni's argument is that the history of philosophy has, until recently, merely been the history of written thought, and digital media can complement and enrich the limited and almost exclusively linguistic approach to philosophical thought. Among the most visible thought experiments designed by Stefano Gualeni :.
Scientists tend to use thought experiments as imaginary, "proxy" experiments prior to a real, "physical" experiment Ernst Mach always argued that these gedankenexperiments were "a necessary precondition for physical experiment". In these cases, the result of the "proxy" experiment will often be so clear that there will be no need to conduct a physical experiment at all.
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Scientists also use thought experiments when particular physical experiments are impossible to conduct Carl Gustav Hempel labeled these sorts of experiment " theoretical experiments-in-imagination " , such as Einstein's thought experiment of chasing a light beam, leading to special relativity. This is a unique use of a scientific thought experiment, in that it was never carried out, but led to a successful theory, proven by other empirical means. The first characteristic pattern that thought experiments display is their orientation in time. Thought experiments have been used in a variety of fields, including philosophy , law , physics , and mathematics.
In philosophy they have been used at least since classical antiquity , some pre-dating Socrates. In law, they were well-known to Roman lawyers quoted in the Digest. The relation to real experiments can be quite complex, as can be seen again from an example going back to Albert Einstein. In this paper, starting from certain philosophical assumptions,  on the basis of a rigorous analysis of a certain, complicated, but in the meantime assertedly realizable model, he came to the conclusion that quantum mechanics should be described as "incomplete".
Niels Bohr asserted a refutation of Einstein's analysis immediately, and his view prevailed.
These experiments tested the Bell inequalities published in in a purely theoretical paper. The above-mentioned EPR philosophical starting assumptions were considered to be falsified by empirical fact e. Thus thought experiments belong to a theoretical discipline, usually to theoretical physics , but often to theoretical philosophy. In any case, it must be distinguished from a real experiment, which belongs naturally to the experimental discipline and has "the final decision on true or not true ", at least in physics.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Considering hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references.
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Balls and vase problem infinity and cardinality Gabriel's Horn infinity Hilbert's paradox of the Grand Hotel infinity Infinite monkey theorem probability Lottery paradox probability Sleeping beauty paradox probability. Halting problem limits of computability Turing machine limits of computability Two Generals' Problem Dining Philosophers computer science. Retrieved March 27, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Copenhagen , in Danish, printed by Johan Frederik Schulz. III pp.
Although Experiment is a German word, it is derived from Latin. The synonym Versuch has purely Germanic roots. John Worrall and Elie Zahar, eds. Retrieved Sanna used the term prefactual to distinguish these sorts of thought experiment from both semifactuals and counterfactuals. Or in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed …" Hume, D.
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How many people will be living in the unit? How many people living with you smoke? What is your monthly income? Have you ever been convicted of a relevant crime? And looking for must-do's in Italy does more harm than good. The best part of Italy is to relax and let the country and the people and the atmosphere come to you, wherever you might be at the time. Way to much driving, You will be at least half the day on the highway its about 3 hours round trip Florence to Pisa.
Its a 2 hour round trip to San Gimignano but thats taking the SR2. The drive to Pisa is not the most scenic route. The SR 2 is a bit better but not much. This topic has been closed to new posts due to inactivity. We hope you'll join the conversation by posting to an open topic or starting a new one. We remove posts that do not follow our posting guidelines, and we reserve the right to remove any post for any reason. Profile JOIN.
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